+ It is simple;
+ It presents the communication process in a structure of clearly identifiable and describable elements;
+ It has great historical importance as it stimulated further research;
+ With its introduction of the ‘noise’ concept (i.e. any signals that might interfere with the transmission of the message) helps to start looking for what can go wrong in the communication process;
+ It aims at optimizing the communication process to be most effective.
– It is too simple;
– It shows a one-way process and excludes any feedback from the receiver to the sender;
– It is good for person-to-person communication, but not so effective for group or mass communication;
– In its setup of a sender sending a message to the receiver, this model prioritizes the sender, whereas the receiver has a merely passive role
‘To hear’ is more of the passive kind, picking up sounds that accidentally reach our ear. ‘To listen’ is even more active, intentional and intent, as it means focusing on a sound source we already know about.
Listening is an active process, because we do not only receive sounds. Sounds do not in themselves have a meaning, but we select those sound patterns from the surrounding noise which make sense to us and construct this sense in our brain.
Comprehension reading is reading for content and to understand the facts and arguments in a text, whereas critical reading distances itself from the text, tries to verify its propositions and statements, explores opinions expressed in the text, especially when they are only implied.
I KEEP six honest serving-men:
(They taught me all I knew)
Their names are What and Where and When
And How and Why and Who.
I send them over land and sea,
I send them east and west;
But after they have worked for me I give them all a rest.
5. Identify your context (audience, course type, deadline, length etc.)
3. Identify your subject and purpose
6. Research and collect the material
2. Create an outline
7. Write the text following the outline
4. Edit and design your text
The first and perhaps the greatest challenge facing Nigeria and making it difficult for good quality education that is capable of bringing about sustainable development is inadequate funding by federal, state and local governments.In 1997 and 2000 statistics show that federal government expenditure on education was below 10% of overall expenditure. It noticed that, the national expenditure on education cannot be computed because various states’ expenditure on education cannot be determined, in relation to the UNESCO recommendation of 26% of national budgets.In 2013, the government has finally assigned billions of naira to the educational sector and this effort has to be sustained.
Definition: Signposts in a text are like signposts on the road: They show the direction, warn to watch out and pay particular attention. They can point to important connections in the argument, to important points you make or direct the reader’s attention in other ways.
– numbering of headings is inconsistent;
– typeface and font size of headings is inconsistent;
– highlighting /signposting inconsistent (different font types, different colours) and unclear (yellow is not legible);
– paragraph 2 too short;
– paragraph 5 probably too long;
– font size too small in paragraph 4;
– font switches from Times New Roman to Arial in paragraph 3, and then back;
Where exactly it is situated, so you will easily find it (room number, floor, building etc.);
Where you will be standing (or sitting?), where and in what order the audience will sit. Does the room need re-arranging?
What is the media equipment of the room? Are all appliances there that you may need, and are they in good working order?
What is the lighting situation? Do you get daylight, do you need to pull down the blinds when you are using a projector for PowerPoint projections?
Does the room have air conditioning? Does it work? Otherwise, are there alternative ways of ventilation?
Can you spot potential sources of disturbance?
Content overload: Don’t put too much on one slide. There is no time for the audience to read much, and the text easily gets small and blurry in projection. Don’t put more than 5-7 lines of text on a slide.
Animation overload: PowerPoint does offer a number of animation gimmicks, most of which confuse and disturb. Use them very sparingly.
Slide overload: Do not switch slides all the time. There is a limited number of slides the audience can take in during a presentation.
Fancy Fonts: Use easily legible, clear fonts for your text on the slides.
Bad contrast: Watch that the text on the slide is clearly visible against the background.
Reading out text on slides: The slides you use should provide orientation, illustration and perhaps background information. They should not show the script of your presentation which you read to the audience.
Talking to the PowerPoint: You should know (and ideally see in a printout or in your computer screen in front of you) what is on the slides, so you don’t need to talk facing the projection: Face your audience.
Focus overload: The focus of the presentation is you as the presenter and the audience as your addressees, NOT the PowerPoint slides. Keep that always in mind.
Inconsistency in design choices: All slides should follow the same basic design, which should not be too garish or confusing. Keep design elements in the background.
Blocking the audience’s view: Watch out where you stand vis-à-vis the projection.
Talk to members of the audience as they file into the presentation room before presentation starts. Have some small talk [hyperlink to course part II], e.g. as you circulate handouts.
Introduce yourself at the beginning of the presentation.
Maintain eye contact with your audience. For instance, alternate looking towards each section of the audience for a while (e.g. front left, back left, front right, back right) and pick out individuals for occasional, direct eye contact of about three seconds (one of the many ‘three seconds rules’ around).
Talk to your audience, and not at or ‘above’ them.
Keep the right distance: Unless the audience is very large and you have to keep a distance to be seen by everyone, avoid separation by a rostrum or lectern. If these are in place, move towards the audience frequently. At the same time, keep a polite distance to individual audience members: body contact, patting on shoulders etc. are usually felt as irritating.
Interact with your audience by building in a question, either rhetorical or real, or by giving them a task to think about something for a moment.
Check that the place you stand or move in is lit well: if the audience only hears your voice coming from a silhouette in the dark, they may find this fatiguing. Especially your face should be well lit
In 1, the question is whether you noticed the music at all (and, possibly, were disturbed by it); in 2, the question is whether you attentively focused on it, e.g. by going out and sitting with the musicians.]
Contrast poverty on the one hand and technological advance on the other, Poverty as a trap and prison which is similar to slavery and apartheid, Its abolition is an act of justice, Steps to be taken are establish trade justice and end debt crisis.
Use of phrases establishing community e.g. “as you know”, Direct address e.g. “you – young people of Britain” and imperatives e.g. “Act with courage…”, Reference to (shared) humanity, Use of “we” as personal pronoun
Writing is an active skill, not only because something is produced and not only received, but because knowledge is generated in the process. This process of writing is not linear, but you may have to go back to earlier steps and revise even during the process of writing. The smallest unit in a text above the sentence level is the paragraph. It consists of three main elements, the topical sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. When you revise, you look at the deep structure and content of the text, whereas when you edit, you consider the surface. When you check for style in your text, you look at syntax, words, tone and register. The main registers are formal, informal and neutral. You would use a formal register when writing a letter to the Vice Chancellor of your University, and an informal register in an email to a friend.