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+ It is simple;
+ It presents the communication process in a structure of clearly identifiable and describable elements;
+ It has great historical importance as it stimulated further research;
+ With its introduction of the ‘noise’ concept (i.e. any signals that might interfere with the transmission of the message) helps to start looking for what can go wrong in the communication process;
+ It aims at optimizing the communication process to be most effective.
– It is too simple;
– It shows a one-way process and excludes any feedback from the receiver to the sender;
– It is good for person-to-person communication, but not so effective for group or mass communication;
– In its setup of a sender sending a message to the receiver, this model prioritizes the sender, whereas the receiver has a merely passive role
Nonverbal communication barrier: sitting posture expressing disinterest or boredom, no eye contact to speaker.
Prejudice or Stereotype
Of these, listening and speaking are oral, while reading and writing refer to written texts.
Listening and reading are generally considered as receptive, whereas speaking and writing are productive skills.
‘To hear’ is more of the passive kind, picking up sounds that accidentally reach our ear. ‘To listen’ is even more active, intentional and intent, as it means focusing on a sound source we already know about.
The sense of sight is switched off in sleep, whereas the sense of hearing is always ‘switched on’.
Listening is an active process, because we do not only receive sounds. Sounds do not in themselves have a meaning, but we select those sound patterns from the surrounding noise which make sense to us and construct this sense in our brain.
The dog ate the sausage.
4. He wanted to make clear that a text could only come into being as a communal effort of the class.
Comprehension reading is reading for content and to understand the facts and arguments in a text, whereas critical reading distances itself from the text, tries to verify its propositions and statements, explores opinions expressed in the text, especially when they are only implied.
Skimming means you try to understand the general drift of the argument and the findings presented in a text.
Scanning is a technique which helps you spot specific details of information you are looking for in a text which may otherwise not be relevant to your purpose.
3, 6, 7
Survey! Question! Read! Recite! Review!
I KEEP six honest serving-men:
(They taught me all I knew)
Their names are What and Where and When
And How and Why and Who.
I send them over land and sea,
I send them east and west;
But after they have worked for me
I give them all a rest.
Summarize the main points of a paragraph or section.
Reformulate central points in your own words.
Write down words and phrases you want to retain in the author’s own words in quotation marks.
5. Identify your context (audience, course type, deadline, length etc.)
3. Identify your subject and purpose
6. Research and collect the material
2. Create an outline
7. Write the text following the outline
4. Edit and design your text
This is called a mindmap.
It is a good way to visualize and organise your ideas in the planning stage of your writing assignment.
Use Thesis Statements
Create a table of contents with headings and subheadings
The text unit which is next in size above the sentence. It expresses and develops one main idea.
The first and perhaps the greatest challenge facing Nigeria and making it difficult for good quality education that is capable of bringing about sustainable development is inadequate funding by federal, state and local governments. In 1997 and 2000 statistics show that federal government expenditure on education was below 10% of overall expenditure. It noticed that, the national expenditure on education cannot be computed because various states’ expenditure on education cannot be determined, in relation to the UNESCO recommendation of 26% of national budgets. In 2013, the government has finally assigned billions of naira to the educational sector and this effort has to be sustained.
Definition: Signposts in a text are like signposts on the road: They show the direction, warn to watch out and pay particular attention. They can point to important connections in the argument, to important points you make or direct the reader’s attention in other ways.
Example 1: e.g. importantly
Example 2: e.g. primarily
Example 3: e.g. as a consequence
Example 4: e.g. nevertheless
– numbering of headings is inconsistent;
– typeface and font size of headings is inconsistent;
– highlighting /signposting inconsistent (different font types, different colours) and unclear (yellow is not legible);
– paragraph 2 too short;
– paragraph 5 probably too long;
– font size too small in paragraph 4;
– font switches from Times New Roman to Arial in paragraph 3, and then back;
Where exactly it is situated, so you will easily find it (room number, floor, building etc.);
Where you will be standing (or sitting?), where and in what order the audience will sit. Does the room need re-arranging?
What is the media equipment of the room? Are all appliances there that you may need, and are they in good working order?
What is the lighting situation? Do you get daylight, do you need to pull down the blinds when you are using a projector for PowerPoint projections?
Does the room have air conditioning? Does it work? Otherwise, are there alternative ways of ventilation?
Can you spot potential sources of disturbance?
Mistakes in 1:
Mistakes in 2:
In 1, the question is whether you noticed the music at all (and, possibly, were disturbed by it); in 2, the question is whether you attentively focused on it, e.g. by going out and sitting with the musicians.]
Contrast poverty on the one hand and technological advance on the other, Poverty as a trap and prison which is similar to slavery and apartheid, Its abolition is an act of justice, Steps to be taken are establish trade justice and end debt crisis.
Use of phrases establishing community e.g. “as you know”, Direct address e.g. “you – young people of Britain” and imperatives e.g. “Act with courage…”, Reference to (shared) humanity, Use of “we” as personal pronoun
Reading is an intellectual, creative activity, not just passive reception…
…because meaning is also created by the reader
An implicature is something expressed…
…by the ‘pragmatics’ of a text passage (i.e. its conventional meaning and context)
Training the skill of critical reading helps you to…
…form your own opinion about a text.
In comprehension reading you look for…
…an understanding of what the text is about and understand what the author tries to convey
to read through a text quickly to find out its main ideas
look out for headlines and summaries
The SQR3 Method stands for
Survey – Question – Read – Recite – Review
Writing is an active skill, not only because something is produced and not only received, but because knowledge is generated in the process. This process of writing is not linear, but you may have to go back to earlier steps and revise even during the process of writing. The smallest unit in a text above the sentence level is the paragraph. It consists of three main elements, the topical sentence, supporting sentences and a concluding sentence. When you revise, you look at the deep structure and content of the text, whereas when you edit, you consider the surface. When you check for style in your text, you look at syntax, words, tone and register. The main registers are formal, informal and neutral. You would use a formal register when writing a letter to the Vice Chancellor of your University, and an informal register in an email to a friend.
The correct sequence is 3, 6, 2, 7, 1, 4.
Using point 5 in this cover letter is not recommended.
6, 4, 7, 3, 5, 1, 2, 9, 8, 10
STAR is the acronym for a strategy of structuring answers in interviews: Situation, Task, Action, Result.
It is a principle for applications: Keep It Short and Simple.
When you have the exam paper in front of you, watch out for keywords that can direct the way you build your answer. Thus, “analyse” means Look closely at the detail; give reasons why or how something is done and the effect of this. If you are meant to highlight similarities and differences, possibly adding a preference of your own, the keyword is probably compare and when you are meant to identify the most important points and bring them together in a concise, structured way, the command word reads summarize. Whatever the outcome of your exam when you get the marks, always reflect on the results, notable on your preparation and on your performance. If you fail, follow a five step plan of (1) Damage control, (2) Get some distance, (3) Analyse possible causes of failure, (4) Make a new plan and retry and (5) Get the help you need.
Before starting your preparation work for an exam, it is important to know the scope of your exam and the type of exam you enter. The four most common types of written exam are multiple choice, short answer, long or essay answer and blended exam. For managing and using your course notes, you can follow the strategy designated by the acronym SUSAC, which means: Sort – Update – Supplement – Arrange – Condense. To help your memory, you can use the method where you deposit chunks of knowledge on an imaginary journey or in an imaginary space, like a road or a house. This method is called method of loci. Furthermore, you can look for support in mnemonics which are strategies that help you remember better, more, and longer. For visualising your knowledge, use mind maps, flow charts and diagrams as appropriate.
After giving Sam a lift to the airport, Susan made her way home. What an exciting life he led! At times Susan felt desperately jealous of him. She spent her time doing little more than taking care of him and the children. Susan had promised to give her sister a call as soon as she got home but she decided to run herself a bath first. She had a sharp pain in her side and hoped that a hot bath might ease the pain. After giving her sister a ring Susan went to bed.
In the morning, Susan did some work in the garden, then took a rest for about an hour before going out to do some shopping in town. It was her sisters’ birthday and she wanted to cook a nice meal for her. She had a look at a new Asian cookery book in the bookshop and decided to buy it. It had some very easy recipes and Susan managed to make a good impression with her very first Asian meal.
To give someone a lift
To make one’s away
To lead a (boring, exciting, pleasant…) life
To be jealous of someone
To spend one’s time
To take care of
To give a call / a ring
To run a bath
To ease the pain
To go to bed
To do some/little/a lot of work
To take a rest
To go out
To do some shopping
To have a look at
To make a good/bad impression with
In the morning I made some work in the garden, then I spent a rest for about an hour before going out to have some shopping in town. It was my sister’s birthday and I wanted to do a special effort to cook a nice meal for her. I gave a look at a new Asian cookery book in the bookshop and decided to buy it. It has some totally easy recipes and I managed to do a good impression with my very first Asian meal. I think my sister utterly enjoyed her birthday.
Do some work
Take a rest
Do some shopping
Make an effort
Take a look
Make an impression
Greatly /highly enjoy
|after||resemble (e.g. a parent)|
|apart||dismantle / defeat, criticize|
|aside||lead away from a group to talk in private|
|away||remove / buy and carry away|
|for||assume that sb is sth|
|in||receive, include / observe / fool, trick|
|off||remove / start to fly (plane)|
|on||take on board / employ / undertake /assume|
|out||destroy / lead or carry from|
|out on||make the scapegoat for|
|over||assume control or direction|
|round||lead on a tour|
|through||read something to somebody, repeat it, to check accuracy|
|to||go away to a place, an escape / move towards and enter / adopt a habit or practice / form a liking for /|
|up||lift / absorb / adopt (a pastime) /start / continue / mention (a topic) / interrupt in order to disagree / occupy|
|to take||the air||go for a walk|
|something amiss||be offended by something|
|something as /for gospel||believe credulously|
|a back seat||change to a less important function|
|a bow /curtain||acknowledge applause by bowing|
|the cash and let the credit go||put immediate financial advantage above other considerations|
|a chance||attempt to do knowing that one may incur injury loss etc, take a risk|
|the count||be (knocked) unconscious or helpless|
|the floor||rise to address (a meeting, an assembly)|
|a lot of stick||suffer a lot of (unfair) criticism, blame|
|one’s medicine||submit to something unpleasant|
|the plunge||finally do something one has been undecided about|
|a tumble||fall; diminish sharply or suddenly|
|umbrage at something||be offended by something|
|wing||rise in flight, become active|
|something is very unlikely||when pigs fly|
|something is very easy||a piece of cake|
|looking in the wrong place||barking up the wrong tree|
|avoid the main topic||beat about the bush|
|happens very rarely||once in a blue moon|
|not wanting to take a decision||sit on the fence|
|don’t take too seriously what somebody has said||take with a pinch /grain of salt|
|call for help when you don’t need it||cry wolf|
|hear as a rumour||on the grapevine|
|something is very expensive||something costs an arm and a leg|
|controversial issue unpleasant to deal with||hot potato|
|be brave in the face of adversity||keep a stiff upper lip|
|upset about something that happened in the past||a chip on one’s shoulder|
|an unbelievable tale||a cock and bull story|
|die||kick the bucket|
|somebody who is unpredictable||loose cannon|
|in a risky situation||out on a limb|
|exact likeness||spitting image|
|1. care||2. hour, hourglass|
|3. shield||4. decorated|
|5. value, valuation, valuable||6. farewell|
|7. well||8. man|
|9. appear, appearance, disappear||10. horse|
|11. oil||12. appeal, apellate, apellation|
|13. to ask||14. counsel, counsellor|
|15. flammable, imflammable, flame||16. wooden|
|17. secretly||18. candid, candidate, candidacy|
|19. life||20. son|
|21. slave||22. auxiliary|
|23. to send||24. invincible, vincible, vincibility|
|25. punish, punishable, punitive||26. wave|
|27. coronal, corona, coronary||28. laurel tree|
|29. boy||30. branch|
|31. arm||32. medium, mediocre, mediate|
|33. sacrament, sacerdotal, sacrium, sacred||34. arson, ardent, ardency|
|35. delegate||36. custodian, custodial, custody|
|37. diligent, diligence||38. science, scientific, scientist|
|39. neighbour||40. medicine, medical, medication|
|41. few||42. to make|
|43. sonar, sonorous, sonic, sonogram||44. second, secondary, second-hand|